Educational consequences of teenage pregnancy

Educational consequences of teenage pregnancy

Educational consequences of teenage pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy is a world disaster, and it has become a major concern to both developing and developed countries all over the world.

What is it?

Teenage pregnancy is a world disaster, and it has become a major concern to both developing and developed countries all over the world. Adolescent pregnancy takes an enormous toll on a girl’s education and income-earning potential. Many girls who become pregnant are pressured or forced to drop out of school. Girls not in school are also more likely to become pregnant.

Leaving school jeopardizes a girl’s future economic prospects and excludes her from other opportunities in life. By contrast, girls who remain in school are better prepared for jobs, livelihoods and life’s other transitions. Education also raises their status in their households and communities, and gives them more say in decisions that affect their lives. An educated girl is less likely to enter into a child marriage. She is also better able to delay childbearing, and is more likely to have a healthy pregnancy, with better outcomes for her future children.


How does teenage pregnancy affect teen fathers?

Fathering a child as a teenager can be a frightening and life-changing event. Teen fathers don’t have to worry about the health implications of pregnancy and childbirth, but they could face similar difficulties staying in school and earning a living.

State laws vary on the legal age for people to have sexual intercourse. Arrest or legal action against teens who are sexually active can have devastating effects. A young man may be required to register as a sex offender if he has reached the legal age (age 18 in some states) and his partner has not (age 17 or under).

The only way to be sure you won’t get pregnant is to not have sexual intercourse. However, there are many methods to reduce your chances of becoming pregnant if you’re sexually active. Many communities offer counseling and support programs that help prevent teen pregnancy.

These groups can provide information on birth control and help teens understand their own sexual limits so they don’t get into situations where they might have unprotected sex and get pregnant.

Some programs offer peer counseling, since it might feel more comfortable talking to someone your own age.

    Pregnancy and risks

    Pregnancy & risks

    Pregnancy is used to describe when a fetus develops inside a woman’s womb or uterus that lasts around 9 months (40 weeks). Your body will change, and it might require you to change your daily routine (sleeping earlier or eating frequent, small meals).

    What is it?

    • Pregnancy is used to describe when a fetus develops inside a woman’s womb or uterus that lasts around 9 months (40 weeks). Your body will change, and it might require you to change your daily routine (sleeping earlier or eating frequent, small meals). As your pregnancy progresses, a lot of the uncomfortable changes will stop. But some women might not feel any discomfort at all. Being pregnant before could make it easier/different when you get pregnant again. Every pregnancy is different. Pregnancy is split into three stages called trimesters. The significant events in each trimester are:

    First trimester (Week 1- 12)

    This stage starts when the sperm penetrates an egg and fertilizes it. The fertilized egg (a zygote) then goes through the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it implants itself in the uterine wall. The zygote comprises a cluster of cells that later form the fetus and the placenta. The placenta connects the mother to the fetus and provides nutrients and oxygen.

    Your body goes through several changes, and hormonal changes affect most of your organ systems. The clear sign of pregnancy is when your period stops. Additional changes can include:

    • Extreme exhaustion
    • Tender, swollen breasts (nipples might stick out)
    • Morning sickness (Upset stomach with or without vomiting)
    • Cravings or disgust for some foods
    • Mood swings
    • Constipation (difficult bowel movements)
    • Frequent urination (more than usual)
    • Headache
    • Heartburn
    • Weight gain or loss
    Second trimester (Week 13 - 28)
    • This is the stage where your doctor will look for birth defects and can determine the sex of your baby. Movement can be felt at week 20 of the pregnancy. Footprints and fingerprints are formed, and the fetus wakes up and sleeps at 24 weeks. Babies born at 28 weeks will experience serious health complications such as respiratory and neurologic problems and have a 92% survival rate, according to research made by the NICHD Neonatal Research Network.

      Several women experience less discomfort during this stage compared to the first trimester. There are noticeable changes like the abdomen expanding and feeling your baby move before the trimester ends. Your body will make the necessary changes to accommodate your growing baby. You might experience: 

      • Aching body (back, abdomen, thigh, or groin (area between the abdomen and the upper thighs)
      • Stretch marks (stomach, breasts, thighs, or buttocks)
      • Skin around the nipples darken
      • Noticeable line on the skin from the belly button to the pubic hairline
      • Mask of pregnancy (patches of darker skin on cheeks, forehead, nose, or upper lip that matches on both sides of the face)
      • Carpal tunnel syndrome (hands numb or tingle)
      • Itching (stomach, palms, and soles of the feet). Call your doctor if you see signs of a serious liver problem (Nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, jaundice (yellowing of skin or whitening of eyes), or fatigue combined with itching)
      • Swelling (ankles, fingers, and face). Call your doctor if you see signs of preeclampsia (sudden or major swelling or gaining weight too quickly)
    Third trimester (Week 29 - 40)
    • This is the stage where your doctor will look for birth defects and can determine the sex of your baby. Movement can be felt at week 20 of the pregnancy. Footprints and fingerprints are formed, and the fetus wakes up and sleeps at 24 weeks. Babies born at 28 weeks will experience serious health complications such as respiratory and neurologic problems and have a 92% survival rate, according to research made by the NICHD Neonatal Research Network.

      Several women experience less discomfort during this stage compared to the first trimester. There are noticeable changes like the abdomen expanding and feeling your baby move before the trimester ends. Your body will make the necessary changes to accommodate your growing baby. You might experience: 

      • Aching body (back, abdomen, thigh, or groin (area between the abdomen and the upper thighs)
      • Stretch marks (stomach, breasts, thighs, or buttocks)
      • Skin around the nipples darken
      • Noticeable line on the skin from the belly button to the pubic hairline
      • Mask of pregnancy (patches of darker skin on cheeks, forehead, nose, or upper lip that matches on both sides of the face)
      • Carpal tunnel syndrome (hands numb or tingle)
      • Itching (stomach, palms, and soles of the feet). Call your doctor if you see signs of a serious liver problem (Nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, jaundice (yellowing of skin or whitening of eyes), or fatigue combined with itching)
      • Swelling (ankles, fingers, and face). Call your doctor if you see signs of preeclampsia (sudden or major swelling or gaining weight too quickly)

    Antenatal Care

    It is a care you receive when you are pregnant to check on your baby. Your doctor or midwife will check both you and your baby’s health, give you helpful information for a healthy pregnancy (healthy eating and exercise), discuss choices for your care during pregnancy, labor, and birth.

    You will go through several tests like urine tests, blood pressure checks, pregnancy scans every time you go to the hospital, and screening for sickle cell and thalassemia at 10 weeks of pregnancy. It is normal to have 10 antenatal appointments during your first pregnancy. If you’ve previously given birth, you’ll have about 7 appointments that can be more if you develop a medical condition. 

    Your doctor or midwife will give you a schedule (after discussing with you) for your appointments. These appointments should be in an environment where you can easily talk about difficult issues such as mental health issues, drugs, domestic or sexual abuse. You will be asked about your family’s health or any support you might need to get the best of your pregnancy care. You must go to every appointment since it may influence your choice later in pregnancy.

    Postnatal care

    The riskiest time for the death of an infant or mother is the first few hours or days after giving birth. This is why postnatal care is necessary to help ensure the survival of mother and baby. Both infant and mother are kept in the hospital for the first 24 hours during postnatal care. Your baby needs constant care and attention. Your nurse or doctor will prioritize giving you information on exclusive breastfeeding, cleaning your baby’s skin, umbilical cord care, and keeping your baby warm. You will be getting counseling and education before leaving the hospital on signs of any danger to your baby and the steps you can take immediately.

    This care is even more important for infants who are born too early, too small, suffer from different kinds of infections, or suffocate during delivery to keep you and your infant healthy. Counseling is given to the mother, partner, and available family. Postnatal exams allow doctors to look for anything odd with the mother or baby.

    Danger signs of pregnancy and what to do when she gets these signs

    Almost all women feel pain or discomfort throughout their pregnancy, but some are worse than others and may require them to get immediate medical care. Signs to look out for that are dangerous to your pregnancy are;

    • Unusual discharge or bleeding from your vagina
    • Your water breaking before labor starts or the liquid is greenish or brown color (doesn’t look healthy or clean)
    • Your baby moves less than usual or not at all
    • Cramps or pain in your stomach during the first few weeks of pregnancy
    • Sudden swelling of your hands, feet, or face
    • Pain or burning while urinating combined with a sore back and fever is terrible
    • Painful area behind your calf or knee which is reddened and too warm to the touch
    • Intense headaches that last more than a few hours
    • Blurry or double vision or seeing white flashes or spots
    • Fever above 38° C that lasts more than a day
    • Injury to your stomach
    • 5 or more uterine contractions in one hour before 36 weeks
    • Unable to pee but get very thirsty
    • During late pregnancy, frequent throwing up and getting sick even more so if you have pain and fever
    • Diarrhea nausea, or vomiting for more than a day

    If you get any of these signs, you have to immediately call or visit your doctor to make sure everything is alright and to take the necessary steps for treatment if needed.

    Abnormal pregnancies

    There are several causes for abnormal pregnancies, terrible like issues with the placenta that can be deadly for the fetus. The different types of abnormal pregnancies include pregnancy failure (miscarriage), ectopic pregnancy, and molar pregnancy.

    Pregnancy failure (miscarriage)
    • also known as early pregnancy loss or spontaneous abortion and occurs in the 1st trimester (20th weeks) of pregnancy. Several factors contribute to this, but fetal abnormalities are the most common. Other causes can be a woman who has already experienced miscarriage and older women. The most common symptoms are bleeding from the vagina and uterine cramping. 


    There are different causes for miscarriages, such as genetic issues and a mother’s health conditions. Genetic problems include intrauterine fetus death (embryo formation stops), blighted ovum (embryo doesn’t form at all), problems with the placenta (the organ that joins the mother’s blood supply to the baby’s), molar pregnancy (no development of the fetus but there’s an abnormal growth of placenta), & partial molar pregnancy (abnormal placenta and abnormal fetus growth). The mother’s long-term health conditions include uncontrolled diabetes, infections, uterus and cervix problems, thyroid disease, health disease, immune system disorders, kidney disease, antiphospholipid syndrome (the immune system wrongly produces antibodies that attack the embryo/fetus), Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (ovaries are larger than usual that can lower egg production and is the leading cause for infertility), and more. 

    Risk factors:

    Multiple risk factors raise the chances of miscarriage, such as a woman who is 35 or above, being overweight, smoking, alcohol, drugs, excess caffeine, food poisoning, physical trauma, and certain medications. 


    Since many causes of miscarriage are unknown, you wouldn’t be able to prevent it, but you can lower your chances by:

    • Quitting smoking, alcohol, drugs

    • Limit caffeine intake (less than 200 mg per day) and herbal teas (maximum 4 cups)

    • Eating a balanced healthy diet and being a healthy weight before getting pregnant

    • Clean fruits and vegetables thoroughly

    • Avoid infections

    • Avoid certain foods like unpasteurized milk/cheese, raw or undercooked meat or eggs, liver,

    Ectopic pregnancy

    occurs when the embryo attaches outside the womb and is fatal to the fetus. This abnormality in pregnancy mainly occurs in the fallopian tube but can also happen in the abdomen, cervix, or ovary. It may cause bleeding and pain in your pelvis. Some women may not have any symptoms unless the site the egg attaches itself to breaks. A ruptured ectopic pregnancy has symptoms such as hemorrhaging (excessive release of blood from blood vessels) and extreme pain, which can cause maternal death; however, if treatment is provided before the rupture, maternal death can be avoided. 


    • Medical treatment: is used to treat an early ectopic pregnancy without heavy bleeding. It is injected into your body, prevents growth cells, and breaks down existing cells. After being injected, your doctor will examine you to check if the treatment has been effective. 
    • Laparoscopic surgery: a small cut is made in the stomach (around or in the belly button) for a thin camera tube to view the area and remove the ectopic pregnancy. There are two types of laparoscopic surgery, and the amount of bleeding and damage will determine the type of procedure. 

    Emergency surgery: this is necessary if you have heavy bleeding where you will get an abdominal cut to remove the torn tube, but in some cases, the fallopian tube is saved.

      Molar pregnancy

      occurs when an undeveloped egg gets fertilized, causing the tissue that was supposed to become a fetus turns into a large mole that can grow and fill the uterus. Another way is when two sperms fertilize one egg causing the placenta (organ providing nourishment to the fetus) to turn into a mole. Fetal tissue that is available will have serious defects. Symptoms can be the same as a normal pregnancy but can also have unusual ones like discomfort in the pelvis and vaginal discharge that look like grapes. To treat this pregnancy, the abnormal tissue needs to be removed.

      Surgical treatment is effective for most women called dilatation and auction evacuation (D&E), where a thin tube is used to suck the molar tissue. Another method called dilation and curettage (D&C) is when a sharp object cuts the tissue from the womb’s lining.
      Medical treatment: this is effective for women with partial molar pregnancy and is referred to as medical management or medical evacuation. The drug will make the womb shrink to remove the abnormal cells.

      Placental abruption

      occurs when the placenta separates from the uterus before the baby is born, causing a reduction or prevention of oxygen and nutrient supply to the baby and can cause heavy bleeding in the mother. It happens without warning and is dangerous to the mother and baby. In the worst-case scenario, a placental break might cause fetal death.

      Mild: if you are less than 37 weeks into your pregnancy and your baby’s heart rate is normal, you will be hospitalized to be monitored closely. If your bleeding stops and your baby’s condition is stable, then you could be able to go home.
      Moderate or Severe: if you are after 37 weeks of your pregnancy and the placenta abruption seems very little, you can have a vagina delivery with close observation. However, an immediate C-section will be performed if the abruption gets worse or endangers you or your baby.

      Suppose you get any symptoms, you need to visit your doctor immediately for proper diagnosis and treatment. If you had any of these abnormalities in your previous pregnancy, you should talk to your doctor when you think of conceiving again. This will reduce your chances of going through this painful experience again. In addition to this, you might suffer from negative thoughts about the loss of your baby. Please talk to trusted friends, family, or mental health experts if you have difficulty copying.

      Postpartum Depression

      A new mother suffers severe depression (feels empty and sad) after giving birth that lasts longer than 2 weeks. It is a serious condition that affects your brain, behavior, physical health, and overall day-to-day life. Hormonal changes might trigger these symptoms where some mothers go through anxiety disorders. Some mothers might not feel connected to their baby, feel like they aren’t the baby’s mother, or might not love their baby.


      • Depression gets more and more intense
      • Difficult to work or get things done at home
      • Pulling back from family and friends
      • Lack of care for yourself or your baby (eating, sleeping, washing)
      • Thoughts about hurting yourself or your baby
      • Intense crying, irritability, anger
      • Insomnia or sleeping too much
      • Overwhelming fatigue
      • Feeling shame, guilt, worthlessness, or inadequacy

      Therapy: you talk to your therapist to help you figure out ways to cope with your depression and change your thoughts.
      Medicine: If your therapist believes your depression is severe, she/he will refer you to a doctor to prescribe you antidepressants (the most common medication for depression) to help relieve symptoms of depression. However, it will take several weeks to work.
      Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): is used for extreme cases of postpartum depression.

      Your doctor might recommend you to take the treatments together or alone after discussing the benefits and concerns of treatment. Treatment is essential for you and your baby. Getting help is necessary for your overall health. 



      A contraceptive is a device, drug, or method to prevent pregnancy. It can be swallowed, injected, attached, or inserted into the body. Contraceptives may be temporary (taken daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, bi-yearly, or more) or permanent. 

      WHAT IS IT?

      A contraceptive is a device, drug, or method to prevent pregnancy. It can be swallowed, injected, attached, or inserted into the body. Contraceptives may be temporary (taken daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, bi-yearly, or more) or permanent. There are several ways to prevent pregnancy, such as: 

      Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive (LARC)

      Intrauterine Methods (Device / Systems) - IUD

      • What is it?

      An IUD is a small, soft, T-shaped device made of plastic or metal with a string attached. A healthcare professional put the IUD in the uterus (womb) to prevent pregnancy by stopping the egg and sperm from meeting. There are two types of IUD (copper and hormonal). They work in different ways to help prevent pregnancy.

      • Hormonal IUD or IUS

      The IUS thickens the mucus in the cervix, making it harder for the sperm to get to the egg and thins the uterus lining. This makes it less likely that a fertilized egg will attach to it. It also may stop the ovaries from releasing an egg. The IUD can help prevent pregnancy for 3 to 5 years.

      • Copper IUD

      This IUD has a copper wire wrapped around it. It changes the lining of the uterus so that if an egg is fertilized, it’s less likely to attach to it and slows the sperm movement, so it is harder to get to the egg. Depending on the type of copper IUD, it can help prevent pregnancy for up to 10 years.

      • How to use it?

      Your gynecologist inserts an IUD. The best time to have an IUD inserted is during your period, as this is when your cervix is most open. The whole procedure takes less than five minutes. Some women usually choose to take over-the-counter pain medication (ibuprofen) before the procedure since the insertion may cause some mild cramping.


      You must check to see if the string is in the right place every month. Your healthcare provider will teach you how to feel for the strings when inserted.


      The copper IUD protects you from pregnancy as soon as it is inserted. If your hormonal IUD is inserted on days 1 to 7 of your period, it works right away to prevent pregnancy, but if it is on any other day, you need an extra form of birth control (e.g., condoms, abstinence) for seven days.


      Once inserted, an IUD can be removed on request or at the time of expiration, approximately 3 to 10 years later. Removal takes about two to three minutes by your gynecologist. You may experience some normal cramping and bleeding as a result, but this should go away quickly.

      • Advantages
      • They’re predominantly hassle-free. You do not have to remember to do anything or take any birth control medicines regularly. It can help prevent pregnancy for 3 to 10 years (depending on the type).
      • IUDs do not contain estrogen, a hormone that some women can’t take
      • If you decide to get pregnant, you can have the IUD taken out.
      • If you use an IUD for several years, it costs less overall than many other types of birth control. That’s because there are no costs after you have it inserted.
      • They’re safe to use if you’re breastfeeding
      • The copper IUD can be used as emergency contraception (EC) for seven days after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure.
      • The copper IUD may lower your risk of cancer of the uterus.

      • What it doesn’t protect you from
      • An IUD doesn’t protect you from sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV.

      • Common Side Effects
      • Irregular periods (spotting, heavier or longer periods) 
      • Pain when your IUD is put in and cramping, or backaches for a few days after
      • More cramping during your periods (Copper IUD)


      • Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      • IUDs are so effective because there’s no chance of making a mistake.  The copper IUD is 99.2% effective in preventing pregnancy. The hormonal IUD is more than 99% effective in preventing pregnancy.

      • Who can’t use it?
      • You can’t use a copper IUD if you have an allergy to copper
      • You can’t use a hormonal IUD if you have liver disease or breast cancer
      • You can’t use an IUD if you have an STD, have a recent pelvic infection, are pregnant, have a cervix or uterus cancer, or have unexplained vaginal bleeding.

      • What to do if it falls out?

      The IUD rarely falls out. It usually happens when a woman is on her period during the first three months after getting the IUD or if her flow is heavy. Another reason could be because of a small uterus. This typically includes women who are under 20 or have never been pregnant. 


      An IUD can come out partially without falling out completely. If this happens, it will need to be removed since it can not prevent pregnancy in this state. Another possibility is a perforation (stabbing) through the uterus (womb), which must be surgically removed. If this happens, you need to see your doctor and not have sex without utilizing another form of birth control.

      • Where to find it?



      What is it?

      Contraceptive implants are a long-term birth control option: a flexible plastic rod about the size of a matchstick placed under the skin of the upper arm. The implant releases a low, steady hormone dose to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg and typically suppress ovulation.

      How to use it?

      You must see your doctor to get an implant. After conducting a physical exam, the implant will be inserted under the skin of your upper arm and can stay in place for up to three years. Implant insertions take just a few minutes. They’re done with a local anesthetic, which makes the procedure painless.

      After insertion, you will have a small bandage covering the insertion site. Some bruising, scarring, pain, or bleeding at the insertion site may occur after the procedure.

      If you get the implant during the first five days of your period, it’s immediately effective, but if the implant is inserted at any other point, you should use a backup form of birth control for seven days.


      You do not need to worry about birth control for three years

      If you want to get pregnant, you can be fertile as soon as it is removed 

      It is appropriate for women who can’t use birth control containing estrogen

      Almost anyone, at any age, can have an implant

      What it doesn’t protect you from

      no protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

      Common side effects

      Abdominal or back pain

      Changes in vaginal bleeding patterns, including the absence of menstruation

      Decreased sex drive


      Mood swings and depression

      Nausea or upset stomach

      Potential interaction with other medications

      Sore breasts

      Vaginal inflammation or dryness

      Weight gain

      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      It is one of the highest levels of effectiveness of all contraceptives and has a more than 99% effectiveness rate

       Who can’t use it?

      If you are:

      allergic to any components of the implant

      have had severe blood clots, a heart attack, or a stroke

      have liver tumors or liver disease

      have known or suspected breast cancer or a history of breast cancer

      have undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding

      taking some medications that might counteract the implant (talk to your healthcare provider)

      What if I’m late?

      If you have forgotten to replace the implant after three years, use condoms until it is replaced.

      Where to find it?

      Hormonal Methods

      Short-Acting Hormonal Methods

      Injectable Birth control

      Injectable Birth control

      What is it?

      Injectable contraceptives are long-term hormonal birth control available in a progestin-only form and hormones combined with progestin and estrogen hormones. 

      Combined injectable contraceptives (CICs) are a form of hormonal birth control consisting of monthly injections of combined formulations containing estrogen and progestin to stop the release of an egg each month and prevent pregnancy. It also makes it difficult for sperm to move through the cervix.


      How to use it?

      Injectables are prescribed by a doctor and administered only four times a year. The first shot should be given during the first five days of a regular menstrual cycle and should be administered differently after labor and during the period of breastfeeding. The drug is given in the buttocks or the upper arm. You have to remember to get a new shot every three months to get its full effects.


      If you get your first injection during the first 5 days of your period, it takes 24 hours to become effective, but if it is at any other time, you need to use an extra form of birth control for 7 days. 



      it doesn’t interrupt sex

      it’s an option if you can’t use estrogen-based contraception

      you don’t have to remember to take it every day

      it’s safe to use while you’re breastfeeding

      it’s not affected by other medicines

      it may reduce heavy, painful periods and help with premenstrual symptoms for some women

      many of the symptoms  usually go away after 2 or 3 months


      Though the return of fertility is a bit delayed and that too more with DMPA but more than 80% of women conceive within 1 year after stopping the contraceptive measures.


      What it doesn’t protect you from

      Injectable contraception does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.


      Common side effects

      Mild Headaches


      Mood Swings

      Irregular Periods


      Tender Breasts

      Less Interest In Sex

      Upset Stomach (Nausea)

      Weight Gain

      Brittle Bones



      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      With perfect use (this means you follow the exact directions all the time), the injection is 99.8% effective, and with typical use (this means not following the exact directions), the injection is 94% effective


      Who can’t use it?

      It is less effective on women who are obese. 

      It is not recommended for women with unexplained vaginal bleeding, liver disease, breast cancer, and blood clots.


      What if I miss or I’m late for my injection?

      If your last injection was 13 to 14 weeks ago, you should still be protected from pregnancy. You need to have your injection right away before 14 weeks have passed.


      If your last injection was over 14 weeks ago, use a backup form of birth control and see your healthcare provider right away for your next injection. If you’ve had unprotected sex, you need to get emergency contraception.


      Where to find it?

      Progestin-only Pills (POPs)

      Progestin-only Pills (POPs)

      What is it?

      The progestin-only pill (POP) is a type of birth control pill often called the “Mini-Pill” because it doesn’t contain estrogen and comes in a pack of 28 pills. Progestin is a female hormone that works by preventing the release of eggs from the ovaries and changing the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus.

      Young and adult women who can’t take estrogen due to an underlying medical condition, sensitivity, or an unwanted side effect are prescribed this pill. They are also used for treating menstrual period problems, cramps, and other conditions.

      How to use it?

      It is beneficial to take the pill when you start your period or the first Sunday after your period begins. You have to take one pill every day at the same time. Every pill is an “active” pill, meaning that all the pills contain progestin, unlike combination pill packs with inactive pills or “placebo” pills in the last row of the pack.  If you’re sexually active, be sure to use a backup barrier method of birth control (condom) for the first 7 days after starting to prevent pregnancy.

      There are 2 different types of POP:

      3-hour progestogen-only pill (traditional progestogen-only pill) – take within 3 hours of the same time each day

      12-hour progestogen-only pill (desogestrel- a synthetic progestogen- progestogen-only pill) – taken within 12 hours of the same time each day

      There’s no break between packs of pills – when you finish a pack, you start the next one the next day. Follow the instructions that come with your pill packet – missing pills or taking the pill alongside other medicines can reduce its effectiveness.


      Can help clear up acne

      Doesn’t require surgery

      No interruption of foreplay or intercourse

      Can be used by women who cannot take estrogen

      Can be used by women who are over 35 and smoke

      What it doesn’t protect you from

      sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

      Common side effects

      Spotting can last a few days until your body gets used to it or for as long as you are taking it

      Not having a period is also common



      Weight gain



      Mood changes

      Breast tenderness

      Abdominal pain


      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      If taken correctly, it’s more than 99% effective.

      Who can’t use it?

      Pregnant women

      If you do not want your periods to change

      If you take other medicines that may affect the pill. Talk to your doctor for more information.

      Get unexplained bleeding in between periods or after sex

      Have developed arterial disease or heart disease or have had a stroke

      Have liver disease, severe cirrhosis, or liver tumors

      Have breast cancer or have had it in the past

      What if I miss or I’m late?

      If you’re less than 3 hours (traditional progestogen-only pill) or less than 12 hours (desogestrel progestogen-only pill) late taking the pill, then take the late pill as soon as you remember. Take the pill remaining pills as usual. This might mean that you will have to take 2 pills on the same day. 

      The pill will still work, and you’ll be protected against pregnancy – you do not need to use additional contraception. If you are confused about the pills you have missed, keep taking it but don’t have sex or use a backup method of birth control (condom) until you can talk with your health care provider.

      If you become sick with vomiting or severe diarrhea within three hours after taking it, keep taking the Pill every day. Do not have sex or use a backup method (condom) until 2 days after the vomiting has stopped. If you have very severe diarrhea (6 to 8 watery poos in 24 hours), then this might also mean that the pill does not work correctly.

      If you missed your pill for 2 days and had unprotected sex, you may need emergency contraception. 

      Where to find it?

      Combined Hormonal Methods

      Combined oral contraceptives (COCs, "the pill")

      • What is it?

      The pill is a type of birth control, also known as the combined pill or oral contraceptive pill, containing estrogen and progestogen designed to be taken orally every day by women. The pill works by stopping the ovaries from releasing an egg each month and thickens the fluid around the cervix (opening to the uterus or womb) to prevent the sperm from entering. 

      • How to use it?

      When you start the pill for the first time or after a break from the pill, it can take up to 12 days to start working to prevent pregnancy. This depends on whether you start with the hormone or sugar /placebo pills. You have to take one pill around the same time every day. 

      You will usually have your period while taking the sugar pills. You can skip your period by missing the sugar pills and continuing to take the hormone pills each day. 

      • Advantages
      • Can be used to skip your period
      • Make your periods lighter, more regular, and less painful 
      • improve acne
      • Reduce your chance of getting cancer of the uterus (womb), ovaries, and bowel 
      • Help with symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis.

      • What it doesn’t protect you from

      STI protection: No. Use external condoms or internal condoms to help protect yourself from STIs.

      • Common side effects
      • irregular vaginal bleeding
      • nausea 
      • sore or tender breasts
      • headaches
      • bloating 
      • acne
      • mood changes

      • Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      It’s 99% effective at preventing pregnancy with perfect use and 91% effective with typical use

      • Who can’t use it?
      • If you are a 35-year-old or over smoker or stopped smoking less than a year ago
      • you take certain medicines
      • you’re breastfeeding a baby less than 6 weeks old
      • If you have had heart disease or stroke
      • Get regular migraines
      • Have breast cancer or have a family history of breast cancer
      • you’re immobile for an extended time or use a wheelchair
      • you’re at a high altitude (more than 4,500m) for more than a week.
      • active disease of the liver or gallbladder
      • diabetes with complications

      If you’re healthy, don’t smoke, and there are no medical reasons for you not to take the pill, you can use it until you’re 50 years old. You’ll then need to change to another method of contraception.

      • What if I miss or I’m late?
      • If you missed 1 active (hormonal) pill or started a pack 1 day late, take an active (hormonal) pill as soon as possible and then continue taking pills daily. If you missed the pills during the first week and had unprotected sex, you should use emergency contraception for maximum protection, in addition to taking today’s active birth control pill.

      • If you missed 2 or more active (hormonal) pills or started a pack 2 or more days late, take 2 active (hormonal) pills as soon as possible and then continue taking pills daily. You may take one at the moment of remembering, and the other at the regular time, or both at the same time. Use condoms or abstain from sex until you have taken active (hormonal) pills for 7 days in a row.

      • If you missed the pills in the third week of the pack, you should continue taking the active (hormonal) pills in your current pack daily. After taking all the active pills, discard the pack without taking the 7 inactive pills and begin a new pack the next day.

      • If you missed any inactive (non-hormonal) pills, discard the missed inactive (non-hormonal) pill(s) and continue as scheduled. 

      • Where to find it?

      Contraceptive patch

        • What is it?

        The contraceptive patch is a very thin and smooth adhesive tape securely attached to your skin. It is attached to an easily reachable area of your body, such as the lower abdomen, buttock, shoulder blade, or the outer part of the shoulder.

        The patch contains a combination of hormones, which stops ovulation and thickens the cervical mucus, making it less permeable for the sperm.  Hormones are absorbed into the blood through the skin, bypassing the stomach, so this method is suitable for people suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. It doesn’t interfere with daily activities, and it doesn’t come off upon contact with water.

        • How to use it?

        The patch needs to be removed and changed every week for 3 weeks. After three patches, you will have a patch-free week which allows you to have your period.

        The contraceptive patch should be applied to clean, dry, non-hairy skin. Do not use any lotions, make-up, creams, powders, or anything else on the area of the skin before you apply the patch. These can interfere with the patch’s stickiness and make it more likely to fall off. Do not use on areas of skin that are irritated or broken. 

        Each time you change your patch, you should use a different place to avoid skin irritation. You should check each day to ensure that the patch has not fallen off.

        Patches come in a protective pouch and should be kept in the pouch until use. It should be stored at room temperature (not in the fridge or freezer). The used patches should be folded, sticky-side together, before discarding. They should not be flushed down the toilet. 

        You have to keep the patches away from them if you have children since they still contain hormones. Patches should be stored in a child-proof container before being thrown away.

        • Advantages
        • Needs to be applied only once a week
        • Its presence can be verified by sight
        • Does not detach with exposure to water or sweat
        • May improve acne in many cases
        • May improve bone strength due to the estrogen content
        • May reduce the risk of benign breast disease, as well as uterine endometrial and ovarian cancers

        • What it doesn’t protect you from
        • It does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV.

        • Common side effects
        • Nausea
        • Breast pain
        • Headache
        • Skin irritation at the patch site
        • Mood changes
        • Changes in menstrual bleeding
        • Weight gain

        • Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

        Despite seeming like nothing more than a piece of bandaid, it is 99.4% effective.

        • Who can’t use it?

        Birth control patches are not recommended for people who weigh more than 90 kg or have a body mass index (BMI) higher than 30 kg/m2. This is because the dosage of medication delivered by the patch can not be adjusted, and therefore there will be the risk of blood clots.

        • What if it falls off?
        • It is unlikely that your contraceptive patch will fall off, as it has been carefully designed to minimize this. If it should become partially detached or fall off, what you should do depends on how long ago it came off.

        • If it was less than 24 hours ago, reattach the same patch in the same location (as long as it is still sticky) or replace it with a new patch.
        • If it was more than 24 hours ago, you must apply a new patch and use a backup birth control method for the first seven days afterward.

        • If it was less than 48 hours, reapply it as quickly as possible if it is still sticky, but if it is not, replace it with a new patch. Do not use anything (such as tape) to try to hold a patch in place that is no longer sticky.
        • If it has been off for 48 hours or longer, or if the time that it has been detached is uncertain: start a whole new patch cycle by applying a new patch as soon as possible. This is now week 1 of the patch cycle. 

        • If you have sex within the following seven days, you need to use additional contraception such as condoms. If you have had sex within the previous five days, you may need to take additional emergency contraception. 

        • If you forget to take the patch off at the end of week 3, take the patch off as soon as possible and apply the next patch on the usual start day of the next patch cycle. This may mean that you do not have a seven-day patch-free break.

        • If you replace the patch with a new one, the day you replace the patch will become the new day of the week you change your patch.

        • Where to find it?

      Contraceptive / Vaginal ring

        • What is it?

          The vaginal ring is a soft, flexible piece of plastic that contains synthetic hormones to be absorbed inside the vagina. It is a hormonal method of contraception obtained by prescription. These hormones help regulate your fertility similarly to how natural hormones work.

          How to use it?

          You need a prescription from your healthcare provider and be sure to tell your healthcare provider if you are allergic to any medicine. 

          The device is inserted into your vagina, which remains for three weeks. It is removed during the fourth week to allow your menstrual period to occur. At the end of the fourth week, the process is repeated. The vaginal ring begins to work immediately, but a second form of birth control should be used during the first seven days of your first month’s use of the vaginal ring.

          To insert a vaginal ring: IMAGE

          Find a comfortable position, such as standing with one leg up, squatting, or lying down. Separate your labia with one hand. Squeeze together the opposite sides of the vaginal ring between your thumb and index finger with your other hand.

          Gently push the vaginal ring deep inside your vagina. An applicator, similar to a tampon, can help with insertion. The exact placement of the ring doesn’t change its effectiveness.

          Try pushing the vaginal ring deeper inside your vagina if you feel discomfort.

          Keep the ring in place for three weeks.

          You don’t need to remove the vaginal ring during sex. But if you prefer, you can remove the ring for up to three hours and then reinsert it.

          To remove a vaginal ring: IMAGE

          Hook your index finger under the rim of the ring or grasp the ring between your index finger and middle finger and gently pull it out.

          Discard the used vaginal ring. Don’t flush it down the toilet.

          Wait one week to insert a new ring. Withdrawal bleeding usually begins two to three days after removing the ring. You may still be bleeding when you insert the new ring.


          It only requires the user to change it once a month

          It is a good alternative to contraceptive implants or intrauterine devices

          What it doesn’t protect you from

          The vaginal ring does NOT protect against the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.

          Common side effects




          Breast tenderness


          Moderate weight gain

          Change of appetite

          Breakthrough bleeding or spotting

          Vaginal infection or irritation and increased discharge


          Decreased sex drive

          Abdominal pain


          An increased risk of blood-clotting problems, heart attack, stroke, liver cancer, gallbladder disease, and toxic shock syndrome

          Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

          If used ideally, the ring is a highly effective form of birth control, but it has a 91% effectiveness rate since humans are prone to errors.

          Who can’t use it?


          Are older than age 35 and smoke

          Have high blood pressure, diabetes, liver disease, unexplained vaginal bleeding

          Have a history of breast or uterine cancer, blood clots, heart attack, or stroke

          Allergic to hormones or sensitive to any components of the vaginal ring

          Taking certain medications for hepatitis C

          Migraines with aura or, if you’re over age 35, any migraines

          What if it falls out?

          If the vaginal ring accidentally falls out, rinse it with cool or warm — not hot — water and reinsert it within two hours. 

          If the vaginal ring remains outside of your vagina for longer than two hours, reinsert the vaginal ring as soon as possible and use backup contraception for a week if the expulsion occurs during the first or second week of vaginal ring use. 

          Discard the ring if the expulsion occurs during the third week of using the vaginal ring and start using a new ring right away, which might cause breakthrough spotting or bleeding. Use a backup method of contraception until you have used the new ring continuously for seven days.

          Where to find it?

      Barrier Methods

      Female Condoms

      Do NOT use male and female condoms at the same time.

      • What is it?

      The female condom, also called an internal condom, is a birth control device that acts as a barrier to keep sperm from entering the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It also protects against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).


      The female condom is a soft, loose-fitting pouch with a ring on each end. One ring is inserted into the vagina to hold the female condom. The ring at the open end of the condom remains outside the vagina. The outer ring helps keep the condom in place and is also used for removal. The female condom can be used during anal sex, too.


      • How to use it? IMAGE


      You insert a female condom is similar to putting in a tampon. It may seem a little tricky at first, but all you need is a little practice. Here’s how you do it:


      • Be careful not to tear it when you open the package.
      • Put the condom in before contact between the penis and vagina or anus.
      • Put lubricant on the closed end of the condom.
      • Find the most comfortable position to put it in. You may prefer to lie down, squat, or stand with one leg on a chair.
      • Squeeze the ring on the closed end of the condom together and insert it in your vagina as far as it will go, just like a tampon. For anal sex, put it as far as it will go.
      • Let go of the ring so that it opens and stays in place.
      • Let the ring on the other end hang about an inch outside your vagina or bottom.
      • Use a new condom every time you have sex.


      • Advantages
      • Protection from STIs
      • Your partner doesn’t need to remove their penis as soon as they ejaculate
      • Suitable for people who are allergic to latex
      • An erect penis isn’t required to keep it in place
      • Can be used or anal sex
      • Female condoms also make life easier by allowing you to prepare for sex. You can put one in up to 8 hours in advance. Your partner may also have a more comfortable experience since female condoms can fit various penis sizes. You may also enjoy extra stimulation to your clitoris from the outer ring.


      • Common side effects
      • If you are allergic to human-made latex, nitrile, or polyurethane
      • Discomfort during insertion, a burning sensation, itching, or a rash


      • Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      Female condoms work almost as well as male condoms as long as you use them correctly, they are about 95% effective,


      • Who can’t use it?
      • Are allergic to polyurethane or synthetic latex
      • Are at high risk of pregnancy — younger than age 30, have sex three or more times a week, had a previous contraceptive failure with vaginal barrier methods, or not likely to consistently use the female condom
      • Aren’t comfortable with the insertion technique
      • Have vaginal abnormalities that interfere with the fit, placement, or retention of the female condom


      • What if?
      • The condom breaks
      • The condom slips out of the vagina
      • The penis slips between the vagina and the outer surface of the condom
      • The outer ring of the condom gets pushed into the vagina during sex


      Change it as soon as you realize and take emergency contraception.


          • Where to find it?

      Contraceptive Sponge

      What is it?

      The contraceptive sponge is a type of birth control that contains spermicide which kills sperm. It is a soft circular disposable device inserted deep into the vagina and placed over the cervical opening to kill sperm before entering the uterus and fertilizing an egg.  The sponge prevents pregnancy by blocking the entrance to your uterus and slowing the sperm down with the spermicide.


      The sponge can be used alone or with condoms. To best prevent pregnancy, you should use both. Not only that, but condoms can help avoid contracting STIs.


      How to use it?

      You first moisten the sponge with water and then insert it into the vagina. This blocks sperm from entering the uterus. Next, a spermicide that is absorbed in the sponge is continually released. This will decompose the sperm and prevent them from reaching the egg.


      Inserting the Sponge IMAGE


      Wash your hands before inserting the sponge to prevent germs from entering your vagina.

      To activate the spermicide, you have to wet the sponge with at least two tablespoons of water. You can not use saliva.

      You will know the spermicide is active when you gently squeeze the sponge, which gets foamy.

      Fold the sides away from the removal loop to make the sponge narrow. Then, insert the sponge in your vagina with the dented side going in first.

      Once you release it, the sponge will unfold and cover the cervix. The string loop side should be facing out to cover the cervix tightly. Check the position and fit by sliding your fingers around the edges of the sponge. The sponge will be held in place by the walls of your upper vagina.

      The maximum time to insert the sponge before sexual intercourse is 24 hours. It must be left in place for at least 6 hours after intercourse to allow the spermicide to kill the sperm. 

      You are protected from pregnancy even if you have intercourse more than once. It should not be left in place for more than 30 consecutive hours. You will no longer be protected against pregnancy upon removal of the sponge.


      Removing the Sponge


      Wash your hands.

      Use the string loop to pull the sponge out of your vagina. 

      If the sponge turns upside down, find the loop by sliding your finger around the edge of the sponge, or grab the edge with two fingers and carefully pull it out. 

      If the sponge sticks to the cervix, use your finger to lift it away from one side.

      After taking out the sponge, you should check to ensure that the entire sponge has been removed and then throw it away.

      Contact your doctor if you couldn’t remove the sponge or only remove part of it.

      The sponge is for single use only. Do not flush a used sponge in the toilet but instead throw it away in a waste container.



      Does not hinder the sexual experience

      Effective immediately if used correctly

      Small and inexpensive

      You don’t have to see a doctor before using the sponge

      Can be inserted up to an hour before sex, effective for 24 hours

      Can have intercourse an unlimited number of times with each wear


      What it doesn’t protect you from

      The sponge does not protect against STDs and may increase your risk of getting HIV and other STDs. That’s because the spermicide in sponges contains a chemical that can irritate your vagina, making it easier for STD germs to enter.


      Common side effects

      The sponge and the spermicide it releases may cause:


      Vaginal irritation or dryness

      Urinary tract or vaginal infection

      An increased risk of contracting STIs, including HIV


      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      For women who have never given birth and use the sponge ideally every time, it’s about 91% effective and 88% with typical use (not perfect).


      For women who have given birth and use the sponge ideally every time, it’s about 80% effective and 76% with typical use.


      Who can’t use it?

      Sensitive or allergic to spermicide or polyurethane

      Have a vaginal abnormality that does affect the way the contraceptive sponge fits

      Have frequent urinary tract infections

      Have a history of toxic shock syndrome

      Recently has given birth, had a miscarriage, or had an abortion

      Are at high risk of contracting HIV, or one has HIV or AIDS

      Younger women (less than age 30) who have sex three or more times a week


      Where to find it?


      What is it?

      Spermicide is a contraceptive containing chemicals that kill sperm or stop it from moving. Spermicide isn’t a very effective birth control method when used alone. You can improve its effectiveness by using a barrier method form of birth control like a condom, diaphragm, or cervical cap.


      It stops pregnancy two ways, by blocking the entrance to the cervix and preventing the sperm from moving well enough to swim to your egg. 


      It’s available in many forms, including cream, gel, foam, film, suppository ( a small, solid pill), and tablet.



      Gels, jellies, and creams

      These come in different consistencies and textures, but all contain about 1 to 5% of the spermicide chemical. They are inserted into the vagina using a syringe-like applicator.



      It contains a high level of spermicidal chemical, about 12.5 percent, and can irritate the genitals. This is also placed using a syringe-like applicator.



      A spermicidal film is a thin translucent layer of spermicide placed on the vagina and absorbed. You insert it by folding it in half twice, then putting it on your finger and sliding it deep into the vagina. It contains about 28% of the spermicide chemical.


      You have to apply it 30 minutes before sex, or the vagina will not fully absorb it. It needs to be stored in a cool, dry place, and make sure your hands are completely dry while applying it. Otherwise, the film might dissolve before you get a chance to use it. 


      Other types

      Spermicides are also available as tablets or suppositories. Tablets and suppositories should be inserted high into the vagina near the cervix approximately 30 minutes before intercourse so that they fully dissolve. 


      How to use it?

      Since there are different types of spermicide, check the directions that come in the package. If you don’t use spermicide correctly, it won’t work as well.


      Inserting spermicide into your vagina is usually pretty straightforward — it’s similar to putting in a tampon. First, check the expiration date. Then, into a comfortable position — you can stand with one foot on a chair, lie down, or squat — then gently insert the cream, film, foam, gel, or suppository deep into your vagina using your fingers or the applicator that came in the package.


      Timing is essential when it comes to spermicide. Some spermicide must be put in your vagina at least 10-15 minutes before sex. And many others are only effective for 1 hour after you apply them. 


      You’ll need to add more spermicide if you want to have sex more than once. However, using spermicide several times a day can irritate and increase your risk for STDs.



      Doesn’t interrupt sex

      Doesn’t have hormones

      They have no lasting effect on a woman’s hormones

      They can be conveniently tucked into your pocket or purse.


      What it doesn’t protect you from

      Spermicide doesn’t protect against sexually transmitted infections. Using it several times a day may increase your risk for HIV and other STIs. That’s because the chemical in spermicide can irritate your vagina and make it easier for STD germs to enter your body. Adding condoms to the mix helps protect you from STDs and gives you an extra boost in pregnancy prevention. 


      Common side effects

      Recurring urinary tract infections due to irritation 

      Irritation increases your risk for HIV and other STDs 

      Allergic to spermicide (soreness or irritation)

      Allergic reaction may lead to itching, burning, or redness


      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      72% effective at preventing pregnancy


      Who can’t use it?

      All women can safely use spermicides except those at high risk for HIV infection or already have HIV infection.


      Where to find it?


      What is it?

      A diaphragm is a form of reusable birth control that is a small, dome-shaped cup you insert into your vagina to block sperm from entering your uterus. For added protection, diaphragms are meant to be used with spermicide. The diaphragm can be put in right before you have sex or up to six hours before you have sex.

      There are two kinds of diaphragms:

      Flat Ring Diaphragm: Can be folded into an oval and easily inserted with an applicator provided with it.


      Arcing or Coil Spring Diaphragm: Is a little hard to fold and forms an irregular circle but can be inserted using only your fingers.


      How to use it? IMAGE

      First, you need a prescription to get one.


      Before you put it in

      A diaphragm is most effective when it’s used with spermicide. Apply a teaspoon of spermicide into the dome, spread it around the rim, and then insert. 


      Don’t use petroleum jelly or other oil-based creams in your diaphragm. These products may create tiny holes in the silicone. Be sure to check the expiration date because it may not be as effective if it expires.


      How to put it in

      Find the best position to insert your diaphragm by lying down, squatting, or standing with one leg propped up. Whatever position you choose, the idea is that your legs should be wide open and your knees bent.


      To use the diaphragm, follow these steps:


      Wash your hands well

      Apply spermicide to the diaphragm.

      Fold the diaphragm in half and hold it in one hand, with the dome pointing down. Use your other hand to keep your vagina open.

      Place the diaphragm into your vagina and use your fingers to push the diaphragm as far into the vagina as you can.

      Use your finger to wrap the front rim up. It’s helpful to aim for your belly button.

      After placing the diaphragm, check to see if it’s placed correctly. Try inserting your finger into your vagina again to see if you can feel any part of your cervix through the diaphragm. If the device doesn’t cover your cervix, remove the diaphragm and try reinserting.


      You shouldn’t be able to feel the diaphragm once it is in place. If placed correctly, it will stay put even if you cough, squat, sit, walk, or run.


      When to take it out

      Leave your diaphragm in for at least six hours after having sex. If you plan to have sex again that same day, leave it in and apply more spermicide into your vagina beforehand.


      You shouldn’t leave the device in for longer than 24 hours. Doing so may lead to a severe bacterial infection called toxic shock syndrome.


      How to take it out

      Wait at least six hours after having sex to remove your diaphragm. 


      Then, follow these steps:


      Wash your hands well

      Find a comfortable position — lying down, squatting, or standing with one leg propped.

      Place your index finger into your vagina. Hook it over the rim of the diaphragm.

      Gently pull the diaphragm down and out of your vagina. Be careful not to tear the device with your fingernails.


      Diaphragm aftercare

      After you take your diaphragm out, take care to prevent bacteria from settling into the diaphragm. This will preserve the product’s continuous use. With proper care, a diaphragm can last from 2 to 10 years.


      You should:


      Check for holes or other damage. Try filling the dome with water to see if it has leaks. You shouldn’t use a damaged diaphragm. Any holes will allow sperm to enter the cervix and into the uterus.

      Rinse it off and let it air dry.

      Store in a cool, dry container.



      Effective as soon as you start using it, it’s easy to stop using it, too.

      Doesn’t interrupt sex. You can put your diaphragm in up to 2 hours before you have sex (that’s how long the chemicals in spermicide work). 

      Don’t have hormones

      Can use them over and over

      Can have sex during menstruation

      Either partner cannot feel the device

      Portable and can be carried in your purse with ease

      Can be used while breastfeeding

      Can be used if you have medical problems or smoke.


      What it doesn’t protect you from

      The diaphragm does not protect from sexually transmitted infections.


      Common side effects

      Genital irritation, red or swollen vulva/vagina due to silicone sensitivity or by the chemicals in the spermicide 

      Latex allergies

      Irregularities of the vagina or cervix could create additional risks

      Some people get urinary tract infections (UTIs)

      Irregular spotting or bleeding, 


      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      If you use your diaphragm ideally every time you have sex, it’s 94% effective. But with typical use, it is  88% effective.


      Who can’t use it?

      If either partner is allergic to latex or spermicide

      If inherited problems and surgery change the elasticity or shape of the vagina, the diaphragm is not the best form of birth control

      Get frequent urinary tract infections 

      Have a history of toxic shock syndrome 


      Where to find it?

      Cervical Caps

      What is it?

      A cervical cap is a silicone cup you insert in your vagina to cover your cervix and keep sperm out of your uterus. Your vaginal muscles hold the cup in place and stop it from being moved during intercourse. The cervical cap is best effective when used with spermicide, which kills any sperm that come into contact with the cap. 


      Cervical caps are smaller than diaphragms and shaped slightly differently. Diaphragms are shaped like a dish, and cervical caps look like hats.


      You can leave the cervical cap in longer than a diaphragm (up to 2 days), but diaphragms are slightly more effective at preventing pregnancy. Consult your doctor to help you decide which one is better for you.


      How to use it? IMAGE

      The cervical cap should be inserted before intercourse. You will need to apply a small amount of spermicide to the hole and the edge of the cap. Pinch the cap so it folds in half, bowl side up to insert. Push the cap into your vagina and down towards your rectum. Then push the cervical cap as far back as you can so that it covers your cervix.


      You can leave the cervical cap in place for up to 48 hours. There is no need to reapply spermicide every time you have sex but remember to leave the cap in place for at least eight hours after intercourse.


      To remove the cap, insert your finger into your vagina and gently push on the dome of the cap. This will release the suction that is holding the cap on your cervix. Pull the strap located on the front of the cap and remove the device.


      Wash the cervical cap in warm water and mild, antibacterial hand soap. Let it air dry or pat with a towel, and store it in its protective case.



      Can be inserted in advance without interrupting intimacy

      Can be used multiple times

      No side effects from hormones

      Small and easy to carry

      Requires less spermicide than a diaphragm

      Rarely hinders the sexual experience

      May be used for repeated intercourse within 48 hours


      What it doesn’t protect you from

      The cervical cup does not prevent STDs.


      Common side effects

      Can cause vaginal irritation

      Some women wind up getting frequent urinary tract infections

      If you’re allergic to spermicide or silicone, you shouldn’t use a cervical cap


      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      The cervical cap is fairly effective—better with spermicide. The cervical cap is 86% effective if you have never given birth and is 71% effective if you have.


      Who can’t use it?

      Currently, have a vaginal or cervical infection 

      Have an abnormal Pap smear, and the cause is not known. 

      An abnormally shaped cervix

      A history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

      Are at high risk of or have HIV/AIDS

      If you are younger than age 30 and have sex three or more times a week; 

      Have vaginal bleeding or have a vaginal or cervical infection

      Recently gave birth or had a miscarriage or an abortion

      Recently had cervical surgery


      Where to find it?

      Emergency Contraception

      • Emergency contraception is a birth control measure taken to reduce the risk of pregnancy after having unprotected sexual intercourse or when other regular contraceptive measures have not been used correctly. It is intended to be used occasionally and is not the same as medical abortion. 
      • There are different forms of EC, Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), the morning-after pill, and the Copper IUD.

      Copper IUD

      What is it?

      An IUD with a small, soft, T-shaped device made of plastic or metal has a string and a copper wire wrapped around it. It changes the uterus lining so that a fertilized egg is less likely to attach to it and slows the sperm movement to make it harder to get to the egg. 


      How to use it?

      For a copper IUD to work as emergency contraception, a doctor or nurse must put it in within 5 days after you have unprotected sex. The copper prevents pregnancy by interfering with the way sperm moves, making it hard for sperm to swim well enough to get to an egg.


      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      The Copper IUD reduces your chances of getting pregnant by more than 99.9 percent if you get it put in within 5 days of unprotected sex. It’s the most effective kind of emergency contraception there is. Unlike morning-after pills, it works the same no matter how much you weigh. 


      One of the most convenient things about getting an IUD as emergency contraception is that it keeps giving you super-effective birth control for up to 12 years. You won’t have to think about emergency contraception again until you stop using the IUD.

      Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECPs) / Morning After Pill / Post pill

      What is it?

      The emergency contraceptive pill or the ‘Morning After Pill’ is a safe and effective way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex, contraceptive failure, or a sexual assault. Emergency contraceptive pills work by delaying ovulation (the release of an egg during the monthly cycle). If fertilization and implantation have already happened, ECPs will not interrupt the pregnancy.


      How to use it?

      Despite its name, women do not have to wait until the morning after sex to take it. It is more effective the sooner you take it. ECPs are pills that can be taken up to 120 hours (5 days) after having unprotected sex. Some types work best when taken within 72 hours (3 days) after intercourse.



      You can buy the morning-after pill in advance to always have it on hand 

      No serious side effects 

      Requires you only to take one pill


      What it doesn’t protect you from

      Emergency contraception does not protect against STDs. 


      Common side effects

      Irregular bleeding, spotting, or heavier bleeding



      Breast tenderness


      Stomach pain


      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      The effectiveness rate varies from 87% to 90% for the 3-day pill and from 72% to 87% for the 5-day pill. 


      Who can’t use it?

      Females who are pregnant


      Where to find it?


      Sterilization is a permanent form of birth control that prevents a woman from getting pregnant or prevents a man from releasing sperm. It usually involves surgery and usually is not reversible.

      Female sterilization is a permanent procedure to prevent pregnancy and works by blocking the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry the egg from the ovary to the uterus ). When your fallopian tubes are blocked or removed after a sterilization procedure, sperm can’t get to an egg and cause pregnancy. But you still get your period after sterilization. It’s a slightly more complex and expensive procedure than male sterilization (vasectomy)


      Sterilization Details

      There are a few different types of tubal sterilization procedures: 

      1. Tubal ligation: is a surgical procedure that permanently closes, cuts, or removes pieces of the fallopian tubes.
      2. Bilateral salpingectomy: is a surgical procedure that removes the fallopian tubes entirely.
      3. Essure sterilization: is a tiny coil put in the fallopian tubes to block them.


      • Never worrying about getting pregnant
      • Do it once, and never have to think about it again
      • It’s safe for almost all women and has an extremely low failure rate
      • The procedure does not affect your hormones, menstruation, or sexual desire.

      What it doesn’t protect you from

      Sterilization does not protect you from STDs.

      • Common side effects
      • A very rare risk that your tubes may reconnect themselves, leading to a pregnancy
      • Possible complications with surgery, like bleeding, infection, or a reaction to anesthesia
      • For the Essure method, the coils may move out of place and damage the uterus during insertion.

      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      It’s permanent and more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy.

      Who can’t use it?

      • Having undergone prior abdominal surgery
      • Have pelvic inflammatory disease, diabetes, or lung disease
      • If you are overweight

      Breastfeeding as a Contraceptive

      In the first few months after childbirth, breastfeeding reduces the chances of pregnancy by preventing ovulation and delaying the return of menstruation. This is called Lactational Amenorrhea, meaning the lack of periods due to breastfeeding. This is because breastfeeding round the clock releases high levels of prolactin (the milk-producing hormone) in the mother’s body. This can be seen as the body’s natural method of spacing out pregnancies to ensure the health and safety of the mother.

      Breastfeeding as a Contraceptive Details

      How to use it?

      These three necessary conditions must be all met for it to be successful. If they are not met, it is time to start using other forms of contraception.


      You breastfeed around the clock. This means that your baby is fed only from your breast, and no other food, water, or liquids are given to the baby.

      Your baby must be six months of age or less.

      Your periods (including spotting) haven’t returned since childbirth.



      Prevents pregnancy right away.

      It’s free and safe.

      It doesn’t interrupt sex.

      It reduces bleeding after you deliver your baby.

      Breastfeeding may reduce your chance of getting breast cancer.

      What it doesn’t protect you from

      It does not protect you from STDs.

      Common side effects

      Breastfeeding can lower vaginal lubrication (getting wet when aroused), making sex uncomfortable. 

      And some people find that nursing makes their breasts feel less sexual.


      Effective level (used properly and not) / Failure rate

      If all the conditions are met, it is 99% effective. During the first 3 months, the chance of pregnancy is practically zero. When it is between 3 and 6 months, the chance of pregnancy is less than 2%, and about 6% after 6 months (assuming mom’s menstrual periods have not yet returned).